تربیت فرزند، مقولهاى سهل و ممتنع است. سهل است چون اگر به روال طبیعى و تحت ثأثیر فطرت سالم انجام گیرد، نه مشکل خاصى دارد و نه کمبودى. ممتنع است زیرا با توسعه زندگى شهرنشینى، ارتباطات، تکنولوژى، کانالیزه شدن بسیارى از مجارى تربیتى، آموزشى، اقتصادى، سیاسى و... هزاران معضل و موضوع تازه در مسیر تربیت کودکان و نوجوانان و جوانان حادث شده است و
3 From Rumford to Oersted
Our third five remarkable physicists were born in the twenty-five years from 1753
to 1777. Two came from France and one from each of America, England and
Sir Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) (1753–1814)
We return to America for our next profile. It is impossible to give a full
account of all the twists and
10 From Heisenberg to Yukawa
Our last five remarkable physicists were born in the seven years between 1901 and
1907. They came from Austria, England, Germany, Japan and America.
Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976)
In the great revolution of fundamental physics which started with the ideas
of Planck and culminated with the impressive breakthrough of
9 From de Broglie to Fermi
Our next five remarkable physicists were born in the ten years between 1892 and
1901. Two came from France and one from each of India, Italy and Russia.
Louis de Broglie (1892–1987)
The de Broglie family, one might almost say dynasty, is one of the most
illustrious in the history of France. Of Piedmontese origin (th
8 From Ehrenfest to Schro¨ dinger
Our next five remarkable physicists were born in the eight years from 1880 to 1887.
Two came from Austria and one from each of Denmark, England and Germany.
Paul Ehrenfest (1880–1933)
In Austria-Hungary the laws controlling and restricting Jewish life had been
greatly relaxed by the eighteen-seventies, af
7 From Millikan to Einstein
Our next five remarkable physicists were born in the twelve years from 1868 to
1879. Two came from Germany and one from each of Austria, New Zealand and
Robert Millikan (1868–1953)
In America, individual physicists, such as Joseph Henry and Willard Gibbs,
seem to have chosen to work in isolation, rather th
6 From Ro¨ ntgen to Marie Curie
Our next five remarkable physicists were born in the twenty-three years from 1845
to 1867. Two came from England, two from Germany and one from Poland.
Wilhelm Conrad Ro¨ ntgen (1845–1923)
Wilhelm Conrad Ro¨ ntgen, the discoverer of X-rays, was born on March 27,
1845 in Lennep im Bergischen, a small
5 From Kelvin to Boltzmann
Our next five remarkable physicists were born in the twenty-one years from 1824
to 1844. Two came from Scotland and one from each of Austria, England and
William Thomson (Lord Kelvin of Largs) (1824–1907)
In 1894 William Thomson had held the chair of natural philosophy at
Glasgow University for fifty years;
4 From Ohm to Helmholtz
Our next five remarkable physicists were born in the thirty-two years from 1789 to
1821. Two came from England, two from Germany and one from America.
Georg Ohm (1789–1854)
Two centuries ago the science and practice of electrical measurement hardly
existed. With a few exceptions, ill-defined expressions relating to qua
2 From Franklin to Laplace
Our next five remarkable physicists were born in the thirty-one years from 1706 to
1736. Two came from France and one each from America, Dalmatia and England.
Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790)
It has been said of Benjamin Franklin that he found electricity a curiosity and
left it a science. He was undoubtedly the first